Interval: the distance between two notes. Can be harmonic (both notes happening at the same time) or melodic (one note after the other).
Naming intervals: Start on the lower note of the interval. Count upwards on the staff, with the bottom note of the interval as 1 and the top note of the interval as the ending number. Whatever number you end up on is the name of the interval.
Example 1: C to E C-D-E 1-2-3 The distance between C and E is a 3rd.
Example 2: F to C F-G-A-B-C 1-2-3-4-5 The distance between F and C is a 5th.
Fingering: the particular combination of keys that must be closed to create a certain note.
Natural: a symbol, placed before a note, that cancels out any sharp or flat that might have applied to it.
Example: The natural placed before the E cancels the flat in the key signature, changing it from E-flat to just plain E (also called E-natural).
Accidental: a sharp, flat, or natural that is not included in the key signature. It applies through the entire measure unless another accidental happens before the end of the measure on the same note.
Enharmonic: two notes that are notated differently but sound the same. The equivalent of synonyms in written/spoken language.
Example: The note that is between C and D can either be written as C-sharp (going up a half step from C) or as D-flat (going down a half step from D).
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